Pechatnov V.O.

«Conscience of the World» or «Conspiracy of Silence»? To the Anniversaries of the Évian and Bermuda Conferences

The article represents a complex and multifaceted analysis of different aspects related to the Evian and Bermuda conferences and is based on new scientific literature and archival documents. The aspects include such issues as prerequisites for conferences in the documents of the USSR Embassy in Poland as of 1923, historical and legal analysis of the activities and outcomes of conferences from the perspective of international legal regulation of forced population migration, the evolution of F. Roosevelt’s administration policy on the issue of Jewish immigration in the 1930s-1940s, as well as the reaction of the Jewish world to the conferences.

European studies

The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute – to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage," sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study.
At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture.

American studies at MGIMO

The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov – Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work “The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era)”. Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA – "Essays on the history of the United States."

The Battle of Stalingrad and the Second Front Problem

The problem of the second front is one of the most well studied in the Russian and foreign literature on the diplomatic history of World War II. However, some gaps still remain, caused by the lack of analysis of the British and American diplomatic archives by Russian researchers, as well as by involuntary concealment of "uncomfortable" facts by Western historians, who tend to a smoothed version of the diplomatic struggle on this issue.

The Battle of Stalingrad and the Second Front Problem

Using less-known documents from American and British archives the article examines the impact of developments on Soviet-German front in late 1942 on military-political planning in U.S. and U.K. with a special emphasis on the second front problem. It is demonstrated how deeply the German defeat at Stalingrad affected Anglo-American military and intelligence estimates of situation at Soviet- German front and prospects of the war in general.