The article is dedicated to historiography of the U.S. military intervention at the European North of Russia during the Civil war period. The author characterizes the leading scientific and popular works on this subject from the first quarter of the XXth century up to the present, the basic ideas and systems of approaches of American scientists. In the article are analyzed the general tendencies of development of historical representations on the place and role of the United States in this conflict, and the most original researches.
The subject of this article is researching of the main tendencies in modern historiography in reviewing the problems of Russian civil war. Analyzing great lot of works published during the last two decades, the author tries to find the answer to the most important question – who is responsible for unleashing of the most cruel civil war in human history.
The article provides analysis of multilateral donors’ measures directed at assisting Viet Nam to develop its social and economic sector. The author examines programs of multilateral donors, implemented in the main sectors of international development assistance and makes assessment of how these programs effect the indicators of social and economic development. In conclusion the author highlights thetendencyofshiftingmultilateraldonors’measuresfrom traditionaldevelopmentprogramstointegrationofpartner countries into the processes of world economy, revealed on the basis of econometrics model.
The article considers different aspect of Russia participation in international development assistance. This covers both Soviet and modern Russian experience of development assistance provision in developing countries with respect to key objectives, mechanisms, priorities and financial volumes. Special attention is paid to healthcare sector which is among the priorities of Russian development assistance to foreign countries. The article is based on official documents analysis, speeches of officials, reports of international organizations, available statistics sources.
The article considers the Chinese aid to African countries. Special attention is given to the mechanism of dialogue and cooperation between China and African countries. The article reviews forms and methods of the Chinese aid delivery to the African continent. It notes the existence of close connection between the Chinese development aid to Africa and the Chinese-African trade and economic relations.
This paper analyzes the mechanisms of national political and economic interests promotions via the foreign aid system. The role of tied aid and basic tools to promote national economic interests of donor countries in the international development banks are shown. The basic hypotheses for promoting foreign policy objectives, including geo-strategic interests through the provision of international development assistance is analyzed. The transition from narrow national interest concept to the promotion of donors values’ scale is described. Above values scale is incorporated into the criteria of allocated aid conditionality. The role of the international rankings in the mechanism of promoting the values via international assistance. Finally, the effect of "finance leverage" of foreign aid through the involvement of allied donors and private partners sharing the same values is analyzed.
The article analyses preliminary result of the implementation of the Millennium Summit recommendations. The author notes disturbing symptoms of slowing-down the pace of the Millennium target achievement and attempts to identify factors that constrain donor-countries’ fulfillment of their obligations to provide support for developing countries’ efforts to overcome absolute poverty and underdevelopment.
The article outlines the reasons and factors of Poland’s proactive foreign policy towards Ukraine in 1990–2000–s on bilateral level, as well as through EU institutions. The author shows that stemmed from its desire to gain additional weight in Brussels and take leadership positions in the region (the so–called Poland’s «Eastern policy»). Three stages of Polish and EU policy towards Ukraine are defined: from both countries’ independence to the «Orange revolution», the period of V. Yushenko’s presidency in Ukraine and the contemporary stage after B. Komorowski’s election as a president in Poland and V. Yanukovich’s – in Ukraine. It’s demonstrated that even in the most appropriate period – after Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and the «Orange revolution» in Ukraine – Kiev’s prospects of EU membership never materialized, nevertheless, new Ukraine’s government continues to seek for integration in the European community.
The «Arab spring», which started at the end of 2010 with the events in Tunis, is still far from its end. The political landscape of the Middle East is transforming dramatically. The region is facing new spots of confrontation and other threats and challenges to regional stability. What is the Israeli attitude to all these processes? Is the regional security structure mainly based on the Israel-Egypt and Israel-Jordan Peace Treaties likely to remain unchanged? In this article the author tries to answer these questions.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union Central Asia faced the need to develop a new model of stability. The new model was constructed by independent states in the region with the participation of Russia and China. It had sustained by the beginning of the 2000s. However, during the 2000s, the regional system of collective security failed to prevent local outbreaks of instability in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, indicating that most of its focus on the fight against region–wide threats, than to fight threats to national level. It is necessity to work together to create a system that would not contribute to emergence of threats and to their further growing until the regional scale.