The Year of the Italian culture and the Italian language in Russia is about to finish. It can be said with certainty that the dual year happened to be striking and rich of events: more than 400 activities were held in different parts of Russia, and many of them were exceptional. The article covers some topics of the Year of Italy in Russia.
The author examines the main aspects of relations between Russia and Italy. This helps to explain the current state of these relations, which are characterized as “excellent and privileged”. The article begins with a description of the first contacts between the medieval Russia and the Italian states, and briefly covers the diplomacy of imperial and soviet periods in order to conclude with bilateral political, economic and cultural relationship of the last two decades.
The article reviews the major events and periods of the victorious counterattack of the Soviet army near Moscow which marked a turning point in the history of WWII. It was the first major defeat of Wehrmacht viewed by antifascist forces around the world as a beginning of the end for Hitler’s Reich. Using available Russian and foreign primary sources the author reconstructs the chain of events and the logic behind decisions and acts of the two parties in the Battle of Moscow. He is also trying to track the development of tactics and strategic command of the Red Army and to defy the Soviet victory in the military political history of the “Great War”, 1939-1945.
The article analyses the subjective and objective factors played out in the Battle of Moscow in December 1941 – April 1942. The author tries to fix the distorted picture of the events on the Moscow direction of the German–Russian front and the decisions of the Soviet leaders in the Russian and foreign history studies and memoirs.
The article reviews the Russian and foreign historiography of the Battle of Moscow, 30.09.1041 – 20.04.1942. The author discusses selected works on the Battle of Moscow presenting different viewpoints on this historic event. As a result the author outlines five periods in historiographis studies of the Battle in USSR and Russia. Overall the Battle is presented as a tipping point in the history of WWII opening the prospects for the final victory of the Nazi Germany and fascism.