Grand uprising led by Pugachev seized a vast area from the middle reaches of the Volga, the Urals and the Kazakh steppes. Thousands of people from di erent classes and nationalities joined rebel- lious Ural Cossacks in 1773. From the beginning, the uprising was of antimonarchic, not noble character, although its leader, and posed as a resurrected Emperor Peter III. During two years since 1773 the rebels were holding at bay the entire Russian Empire, becoming a real threat to the power of Catherine II.
The UK European Union membership referendum 2016 and its results actualized the study of the British initiatives in the sphere of integration before the entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. The article is devoted to the little-known in Russian historiography “Grand Design” of H. Macmillan, nominated in the wake of the failure of the Suez operation against Egypt in 1956. Plan with such bright and eye-catching name suggested the creation of a broad integration group in Europe as alternative with Britain as a leader to the preparing for the establishment of projects of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic energy community.
The article discusses problems and contradictions associated with the attempt of the Labour Party under the leadership of Tony Blair to start a 'new era' in international relations by putting the 'ethical dimension' into the heart of their foreign policy. Indeed, having come to power and possessing great cred- ibility among the British society, New Labour undertook a number of actions, which marked the formal break with the practices of the previous governments. Thus, they shifted the focus from the foreign trade interests to human rights considerations on the international arena, introduced innovations in the eld of international aid and development of poor countries, declared the priority of so-called 'advanced' national interests.
The article focuses on the research of the consequences of the US nuclear bombings of Japa- nese cities in August 6th and 9th 1945. Military, political and psychological aspects, that were crucial for American military planning at the latest stage of the Second World War are taken into consideration. Also the problems of the new reality in the global policy of that period, which made it possible to demonstrate the military power in such a destructive way, are investigated. The author o ers some logical alternatives to the real circumstances of the 6thAugust 1945, including both implementing and non-implementing of the nuclear weapons.
In this article the reports of Italian diplomatic o cials who worked in the USSR between the two World Wars will be analyzed. On the basis of the unpublished sources, an attempt to explain Mussolini's decision to enter the war against the USSR in 1941 will be carried out. As a historical source, the diplomatic reports present, on one hand, rich material about di erent aspects of soviet life as seen by foreigners and presented by them with thorough details.
During the Soviet period, the right monarchism was considered by historians of our country as part of general methodological approaches to the study of non-proletarian parties. As ideological and political antagonist of Bolshevism, the Black Hundreds were interpreted as the most reactionary political movement of pre-revolutionary Russia. As a result, the full scienti c debate on the right monarchism in the Soviet period did not take place, and Soviet historians failed to form a historical concept of the Black Hundreds as an ideological and political trend in the early twentieth century.
Contradictions between the regions of Belgium - Wallonia and Flanders - have a long his- tory associated with uneven political, economic and cultural development of the territories, which in 1830 became parts of an independent state, the Kingdom of Belgium. The "Letter to the King", written by eminent Belgian politician and writer, socialist Jules Destree (1863 - 1936 gg.), is one of the most interesting sources on the history of Belgium of this period, It became a kind of manifesto of balance between the ideas of separatism and unitarianism.
The most active phase in the work of the Quartet of international intermediaries was con- nected with the attempts to implement the Road Map plan for the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement. The signi cance of the Road Map lies in the fact that it is the plan on the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement which was, for the rst time ever, collectively drafted by the global actors and accepted by both con icting parties To facilitate the implementation of the Road Map, a peculiar “division of labour” based on historical roles which each member of the Quartet had played in the Middle East settlement, emerged inside the Quartet. The work of the Quartet as a collective intermediary was complemented by individual actions of its members which in uenced or were supposed to in uence the Road Map implementation.
This article presented as a review to the textbook of the Doctor of History ShakhalilovSha- mansur, The History of International Relations: Driving Forces, Global Tendencies. Moscow State University Press, 2015. The author focuses readers attention on the regularities of formation, development and peculiarities of legal regulation of international relations, considers these relations as an ongoing, highly controversial and multidirectional developing process of the formation of the world system of States and international relations, explores the driving forces, events and phenomena, who had in his time, and many still have a decisive in uence on international policy the leading powers of the world in the framework of nonlinear processes of globalization and the current, seriously awed by today's standards, world order and system of international law.
This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real re ection of interests of di erent social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party) declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups.