The article addresses the issue of historical context of the Russian foreign policy and its practical implications. The author points out that the current political developments within the international system cannot be understood properly without assessing the historical trajectory of the Russian identity. The article divided into three parts that demonstrate the importance of the contextual approach to the Russian foreign policy. The first part deals with the changes in international power balance and the need to conceptualize the new normal without suppressing opposing narratives.
There are a variety of literatures that illuminate the logic and character of the post -Cold War transformation of the global system. One literature explores the rise and decline of the great powers and the international orders that they establish and dominate. This paper explores the evolution of the international system in historical perspective with particular emphasis on the role of the United States before and after the end of the Cold War against a backdrop of broader global context.
Since China and Russia have moved their comprehensive strategic partnership forward towards an unprecedented height, people have wondered what the motives are behind the two huge land powers to crave this end. Historically, China and the former Soviet Union had forged the formal alliance throughout the 1950s due to the common security concerns, the shared ideologies and the strategic interests of the day. Yet, they also split into the arch rivals for nearly two decades until the early 1980s. Realist scholars believe that China and the former USSR and now Russia are doomed to compete with each other in light of their geographical vicinity and the lack of mutual trust resulted from the pursuit of greatness and historical memories.
The First Russian consulates in Western China were established in 1851. Russian representatives I. Zakharov and A. Tatarinov arrived in Kulja and Chuguchak in early 1852. Numerous reports of the Russian consuls to the Asian Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs contain highly interesting material concerning the first diplomatic contacts between Russia and China. None of the documents from the Archive of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs were used by national historians, they only mentioned the fact, that according to the Treaty of Kulja Chinese cities Yili and Tarbagatai hosted Russian representatives that looked after trade.
The article is devoted to one of the variants of the settlement in the Balkans – the activities of the peacekeeping forces in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The issue is considered from the point of view of the universality of the method of the «Blue Helmets» deployment in the conflict territories, depending on the internal situation in the region. Today, the experience of the «Blue Helmets» in the territory of the former Yugoslavia is again becoming relevant regarding the active discussion on the issue of the introduction of international peacekeeping mission in Ukraine.
This paper analyses the situation, caused by the growing labour migration from China to Italy. In the beginning of the paper, the authors give a short outline of multiculturalism policy and its specific features in Italy. In spite of sustainable ethno-religious tolerance of Italian society (conditioned by the historical and geographical factors, such as longterm fragmentation of Italian state, the presence of a large number of ethnic minorities in a rather small area, intensive North-South internal migration), the multiculturalism policy, imposed by the European Union, has not been accustomed in this country.
The reign of Peter I paradoxically combined both the apogee of the might of the old patrimonial state and the accelerated westernization of the country. The article briefly analyzes some of the factors that strengthened the state patrimonial system: the consequences of the decree on the Unified Heritage of 1714 and the expansion of serfdom due to the appearance of new categories of serfs.
The purpose of the article is to conceptualize economic sanctions in terms of international power politics. Legal and economic literature study sanctions by means of legal norms analysis and their impact on economies, companies and corporations. However, this approach misses a political component, specially the one of coercion to comply with international norms or requirements of sanctions’ initiators.
The article shows that the validity of scientific knowledge being trustworthy is extremely important for ensuring national security. At the same time, there are objective and subjective factors that undermine confidence in it. Among the ob-jective factors is the formation of a reflexive socio-natural reality that acquires a non-linear character of development that, accordingly, implies the formation, of non-linear knowledge based on the transition from the traditional revealing of rigid correlations between facts and phenomena to a theoretical and methodo-logical instruments that can take into account many uncertainties that are manifested in the form of social disruptions, cultural traumas, unintended conse-quences of the innovation human activity.
During the acute phase of the migration crisis (2014–2015) in a large number of European Union states, policies restricting internal borders and the strengthening of external borders took place, which raised serious questions about the future of the European Union’s borders. Ever since the emergence of supranational structures, freedom of movement, capital, goods, services and labor has all been the principal focus points of the EU countries cooperation.