The aim of this article is to put Tsar Peter's traveling incognito in Holland and England into a wider context, to demonstrate that it was not an idiosyncratic choice on the Tsar's part but a mode of behavior taken from a new diplomatic protocol. One of the most vivid examples of the new mid-17th century conception of the term incognito is to be found in Peter's English experience. Using that experience as a focal point this article explains the evolution of the term itself in both literary usage and more broadly in diplomatic practice as it evolved at various congresses and assemblies of the period, beginning with the meetings preliminary to the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia.
The article presents an analysis of certain peculiarities of the Russian translation of chapters about the British Iles from the Mercator-Hondius Atlas (published in 1613). These sections were based on the historical and topographical treatise «Britannia» written by the English antiquarian William Camden (1551–1623). The translation was accomplished in Moscow, in the Ambassadorial Office, by Bogdan Lykov and Ivan Dorn, in 1637, and became known as «Mercator’s Cosmography». The comparison of the Latin text and the Russian translation reveals numerous distinctions between them, which shows difficulties the translators faced with.
The article highlights and summarizes the main aspects of the work of the Czechoslovak Red Cross in Soviet Russia and Ukraine during the famine of 1921-1923s. Its sources are documents from the Russian archives, the National Archives of Sweden, first introduced into scientific circulation in Russia, as well as the memories of the participants in the events. The substantial assistance to the starving population was provided by the Nansen International Relief Committee. One of the organizations that belonged to this Committee was the Czechoslovakian Red Cross.
After Donald Trump took office as President of the United States, Washington displays in many respects a new foreign policy philosophy, as well as non-conventional political practices. The 45th President has virtually resigned the liberal globalist paradigm, he is highly sсeptical about key transnational institutions of the world order, he would not hesitate to withdraw from key agreements signed by the United States if these agreements do not suit the current team in the White House. Trump’s national capitalism, his trade protectionist practices have caused a major crisis between the United States and its partners and allies, enhanced tensions with rival states.
The United States is indisputable global leader in utilizing tools of economic statecraft to secure national interests both through rewarding foreign countries for policies conforming the Washington interests and through punishing them for a deviant behavior. Foreign assistance is one of such mechanisms of global influence. This paper examines the issue of aid prohibition. The first section contains a catalog and an original typology of effective universal (not country-specific) restrictions on foreign aid provision based on the type of the recipient government’s actions or inactions through its domestic policy or international behavior that trigger harming the U.S. economic interests.
Thе article analyzes the concept of strategic stability and its contemporary development in domestic military-political thought. The authors note that the expansion of the meaningful content of the concept of strategic stability in the Russian Federation occurred as a result of the development of strategic non-nuclear deterrence forces and the US policy to reduce the dependence of American foreign and defense policy on the factor of nuclear deterrence. These changes in the military-political situation in the world have led to a reduction in the stability of the relations of key states, despite some proliferation of nuclear weapon technologies in Asian countries.
The article is devoted to the analysis of research tools that are dominant in international relations forecasting. The study is based on quantitative description of 160 prognostic articles from leading journals on international relations for the period from 2006 to 2015. An innovative typology of prognostic studies is proposed and tested. The typology introduces a distinction between «weak prognoses» (probabilistic predictive statements that appear as extrapolations of deductive nomothetical theories) and «strong prognoses» («ideographic» predictions that are formulated as scenarios of possible future developments in specific situations and with specific sets of actors).
The conflict in the South-East Ukraine has acquired a protracted character, primarily due to the lack of consensus among key players. Ukrainian elites and society have not formed a consolidated position in relation to the Donbas. The study attempts to answer the question: what are the specifics and dynamics of the Ukrainian elites' discourse in relation to the Donbas over the past 10 years? The aim of the study is to analyze the semantics, frequency and emotionality of the two major discourses – in relation to the population and the territory of Donbas – using the analysis of the national Facebook segment.
This research article investigates the Russian equivalents of the key terms of the English language interest group politics research vocabulary in relation to the issues that their application is causing in research publications. The study is based on the terminological and statistical analyses of the following terms of the interest group politics: lobbying, advocacy, and interest groups and the Russian equivalents that derive from them. The article offers a detailed analysis and comparison of the essential properties of these Russian equivalents to identify the most suiting of them with an ultimate goal of harmonization of the Russian research vocabulary of the interest group politics.
The development of science and technology, in particular information and communication technologies, has a significant impact on world political processes. It strengthens globalization and interdependence, expands the number of actors in world politics by strengthening the capabilities of non-state actors, it transforms national sovereignty, and also leads to the emergence of new, high-tech challenges and threats to international and national security. Due to their transnational nature overcoming these challenges and threats implies cooperation between different types of actors in world politics.