The article is devoted to activity of orthodox priests in Russian embassies and missions. All Russian embassies in Europe had churches and family chapels with the personnel. They sub-mitted to ambassadors or heads of Russian missions, were accountable to the Russian Foreign Ministry that paid them salary. Most of the Holy Synod also controlled them. During the reign of Nicholas I the priests were appointed to those eastern countries with whom Russia wanted to open up diplomatic relations.
The subject of the study is the perception of political ideologies, movements and parties development problems by the Catholic Church, during the period of the First and Second World War. The object of the study is the Catholic political doctrine during the pontificate of Benedict XV, Pius XI and Pius XII. The author pays special attention to the key encyclical – Quadragesimo Anno, published in the 40th year after Rerum Novarum, as well as the influence that the Church has had on the formation of the post-war political system of European countries. Such methods as dialectical, logical, comparative, systemic, and a number of others are widely used in the article.
This article analyzes the history of the development of the phenomenon of citizenship in Western Europe, from Antiquity to the Modernity. The analysis uses the binary opposition method, which is the basis for including individuals in or out of citizenship. The citizenship of Ancient Greece was of an elitist nature, sharply distinguishing citizens from the rest of the population. The basis for inclusion / exclusion was the binary oppositions “civilized – barbarians”, “free – dependent “, “possessing land ownership – not possessing such”, “adults – minors”, as a result only a small part of the population had the rights of citizens.
The topicality of the article is determined by many contemporary ethnic conflicts in different parts and regions of the world, including the conflict in Ukraine. The article’s study base is formed by modern Russian, Byelorussian and Polish, researches and historical sources. One of the main features of the emerging ethnic conflict in the Polish-Byelorussian borderland in the first half of the XX century, which had significantly influenced its development was the rivalry between two different cultural centers “west-oriented” Warsaw and Moscow as part of a greater “Russian World”.
The end of August 1917 was marked by a dramatic event, which influenced a lot the future of the Russian state. It is the case of the so-called «Kornilov revolt» – undertaken by the Supreme Commander-in-Chief General L.G. Kornilov, who attempted to send troops to Petrograd in order to establish military order in the capital. Kornilov’s action was unsuccessful. Together with his closest associate she was arrested and sent to a small Belarusian town of Old Bykhov, located near Mogilev, where the headquarters was located.
The discourse of “borders” and decolonisation in the context of Central Asia has been a path unexplored until this moment, therefore a “startup” approach is logical. This “border” is a phenomenon that continuously shapes and transforms itself, therefore giving new light to the understanding of history and culture of Central Asia. This guiding principle influences the relationships that are built between close and distant neighbors on the planet. The other side opposite of this the notion is that of a modern state, that does not tolerate the lack of an identity; it requires one to cement a belonging to a certain geographical unit. The history of “modern and national” is articulated through the juxtaposition of “I” and “Other” (“outside of the border”).
The article analyzes the impact of 2016 amendments to the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic on maintaining and strengthening of political stability in the country, which was the official goal of the amendments. The author focuses on new elements in the sphere of division of powers between the head of state, the prime minister, and the legislative power. There are two aspects to the analysis: the normative and the empirical. The main analytical tool was the model of relationship between presidents and assemblies, devised by M. S. Shugart and J. M. Carey.
The article discusses the current state of relations between Russian and the West. The author presents long-term assessment of rising tensions between Russia and the West. The article identifies the NATO expansion as one of the most important factors that contributed to the current deterioration. The author argues that the NATO expansion was a political miscalculation of the Western countries. The author believes that the relations between Russia and the West can be improved through foreign policy linkage of two regions: Middle East and Eastern Europe. It is the place for significant political transformations (especially in the Middle East) and both sides are politically involved there.
Muslim scholars from Egypt and British India formulated the principles of Islamic economy in the second half of the 1940s. At the turn of the 1970s-1980s a number of countries (Sudan, Iran and Pakistan) attempted to Islamize their financial systems. However, in none of the three, the experiment was successful. Afterwards, the Muslim world has not undertaken to build a financial system based on the principles of Islamic economics and finance any more. However, interest in the application of individual institutions of the Islamic economy has not faded away.
The article analyzes problems of solar energy rise in the Middle East and North Africa. The Arab World possesses huge resources of oil and natural gas and gained great significance as a world producer and exporter of energy. The MENA region home market is also a big consumer of oil and gas. The study stresses the fact, that industrial processing of mass amounts of crude inside the region has already created serious constraints in development of the area. The further steps to overwhelm the aggravations may be positive if secured through minimizing serious threats, concentrating around problems of climate warming and green gases.