Emerging Technologies Development: Challenges for The Science, Technology and Innovation Policies

Ivan V. Danilin – PhD in Political Sciences. Senior Research Fellow at the Laboratory of the Analysis of International Problems at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. MGIMO Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Russia, 119454, Moscow, Vernadsky Prospekt, 76. Head of Department for Science and Innovation at the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO). Е-mail: danilin.iv@imemo.ru.
 
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DOI 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-6-63-255-270 (Read the article in PDF)

The article discusses transformations of science, technology and innovation policy as a result of emphasis on the emerging technologies. Crisis and recession were the immediate causes for their actualization, but real reasons appear to be long-term socio-economic problems, which, in turn, form requirements for emerging technologies policies. Another group of policy factors are defined by the evolution of innovation processes, including rise of innovation ecosystems and growing importance of technology diffusion. New tasks required policy transformations, with important experiments realized within technological programs like Industrie 4.0. Among key policy trends was creation of new institutions that provide, in addition to research and development, communication of actors, formation of ecosystems and clusters in the area of emerging technologies. Another focus was technology diffusion through standards, specialized platforms and related institutions. These novelties face serious challenges. Traditional policy instruments do not correlate with the needs of new actors and processes, resulting in inefficiency of efforts. Another challenge is globalization, also growing interdependencies of innovation systems. Given the scale of expected changes, there is a need for both increased coordination of government efforts, as well as increased coherence and convergence of science, technology and innovation policy with related areas, including social policy. The latter is especially important due to the human capital and social dimensions of emerging technologies development and diffusion. In turn, these changes will require new approaches to the political process in science and technology area, including improvements in anticipatory governance practices and search for new, innovative solutions.

Key words: Disruptive and emerging technologies; ecosystems; science and technology policies; innovation systems.

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