The research object of the article is a development of the international regime of the Caspian Sea after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and increase in the number of the Caspian Littoral States, which transformed the former “closed” Soviet-Iranian region to the arena for wrangling between the different foreign policy interests of the most powerful world nations. The research subject is the key role of energy resources in the negotiation process between the States of the Caspian Region. The author pays special attention to the evolution of national approaches of the “Caspian Five” to the problem of mineral resources delimitation as well as its connection to negotiations on the draft comprehensive Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea.
The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods.
The subject of the study is analysis of the state of food security of the South Asian countries at the present time. The methodological basis of the study is such methods as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The systematic approach to the overall study of the South Asian countries’ economy and the state of its food security in particular has become the base of this research.
Regional banks are struggling with significant obstacles in the modern Russian economy. Among them are strong competition with major big banks, strong resource restrictions, tightening the Bank of Russia’s requirements, and quite rapid expansion of financial technologies. Thus, the reduction of regional banks occurs, that produces both a negative impact on the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and challenges for balanced competition on the Russian market. Basically, these banks provide the settlement of region’s social and economic problems while maintaining local companies and enterprises.
Development of the international banking business, the formation of its new paradigm in the context of globalization of the financial system and the intensification of global economic relations in recent years requires the innovative component. The combination of innovations, financial and external economic environment is one of the most important factors that characterize the phenomenon of the “new economy”. Therefore, innovative processes should be considered in conjunction with the changes of the processes connected with the foreign trade banking.
The article looks into the most important aspects of the world economy reindustrialization, examines strategies for reindustrialization of the USA, Canada, and Australia. The correlation between the world trend, namely the transition to the digital economy, and the process of reindustrialization within the framework of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is considered.
The article conducts a political analysis of the Western European institutions of corporatism. The main task of the author is the study of the policy of harmonizing the interests of labor and capital (trade unions and employers’ associations), which is implemented in countries such as the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Denmark etc. Dynamics of political processes unfolding in the space of Western Europe, suggests that the mechanisms of articulation and political representation of social and labour interests have significantly transformed over the past 30 years.
The article is devoted to activity of orthodox priests in Russian embassies and missions. All Russian embassies in Europe had churches and family chapels with the personnel. They sub-mitted to ambassadors or heads of Russian missions, were accountable to the Russian Foreign Ministry that paid them salary. Most of the Holy Synod also controlled them. During the reign of Nicholas I the priests were appointed to those eastern countries with whom Russia wanted to open up diplomatic relations.
The subject of the study is the perception of political ideologies, movements and parties development problems by the Catholic Church, during the period of the First and Second World War. The object of the study is the Catholic political doctrine during the pontificate of Benedict XV, Pius XI and Pius XII. The author pays special attention to the key encyclical – Quadragesimo Anno, published in the 40th year after Rerum Novarum, as well as the influence that the Church has had on the formation of the post-war political system of European countries. Such methods as dialectical, logical, comparative, systemic, and a number of others are widely used in the article.
This article analyzes the history of the development of the phenomenon of citizenship in Western Europe, from Antiquity to the Modernity. The analysis uses the binary opposition method, which is the basis for including individuals in or out of citizenship. The citizenship of Ancient Greece was of an elitist nature, sharply distinguishing citizens from the rest of the population. The basis for inclusion / exclusion was the binary oppositions “civilized – barbarians”, “free – dependent “, “possessing land ownership – not possessing such”, “adults – minors”, as a result only a small part of the population had the rights of citizens.